Procesamiento de lenguaje: ¿de qué hablamos cuando hablamos de predicción? / Language processing: what do we talk about when we talk about prediction?

Gabriela Mariel Zunino

RESUMEN


Las propuestas de procesamiento predictivo en la cognición humana no son recientes, aunque en los últimos años la reflexión y la investigación experimental sobre este mecanismo han crecido notablemente. Sin embargo, la idea de que nuestra mente/cerebro sería una “máquina predictiva” ha tenido y tiene muchas resistencias en el ámbito de los estudios sobre procesamiento de lenguaje. Las disputas suelen darse, sobre todo, en torno a las consecuencias teóricas que tendría para los modelos de procesamiento de lenguaje y de arquitectura de nuestra Facultad del Lenguaje aceptar un sistema con una dinámica anticipatoria por defecto. En este trabajo recorremos varias de las propuestas y debates en el gran marco de la cognición humana, y para la dimensión lingüística en particular, y nos detenemos especialmente en los desafíos que impone esta reflexión a discusiones clásicas: autonomía vs. interactividad, procesamiento serial vs. en paralelo y flujo informativo top-down vs. bottom-up. Presentaremos el tema tanto desde una perspectiva teórica como experimental. Discutiremos qué conclusiones es posible derivar de la evidencia empírica a disposición, y marcaremos los límites que aún exhiben estos resultados experimentales.

ABSTRACT

The proposals of predictive processing in human cognition are not recent, although in recent years the reflection and experimental research on this mechanism have grown significantly. However, the idea that our mind / brain would be a "predictive machine" has had and still has many resistances in the field of studies on language processing. Disputes tend to occur due to the theoretical consequences that would have for the models of language processing and architecture of our Language Faculty to accept a system with a default anticipatory dynamic. In this work we review several of the proposals and debates in the great framework of human cognition, and for the linguistic dimension in particular. We dwell especially on the challenges that this reflection imposes on classical discussions: autonomy vs. interactivity, serial vs. parallel processing and top-down vs. bottom-up information flow. We will present the problem both from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We will focus especially on what conclusions it is possible to derive from the available empirical evidence, and we will mark the limits that these experimental results still exhibit.


Palabras clave


predicción; procesamiento de lenguaje; sintaxis; semántica; interacción; procesamiento top-down; prediction; language processing; syntax; semantics; interaction; top-down processing

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Altmann, Gerry T. M., & Kamide, Yuky (1999). Incremental interpretation at verbs: Restricting the domain of subsequent reference. Cognition, 73: 247–264.

Bar, Moshe (2007). The proactive brain: using analogies and associations to generate predictions. Trends in cognitive sciences 11 (7): 280–289.

Bar, Moshe (2009). The proactive brain: memory for predictions. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 364 (1521):1235–1243.

Bar, Moshe (ed.) (2011): Predictions in the brain. Using our past to generate a future. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berwick, Robert C. & Chomsky, Noam. (2016). Why Only Us: Language and Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Boeckx, Cedric (2011). Some Reflections on Darwin´s Problem in the Context on the Cartesian Biolinguistics. En A.M. DiSciullo & C. Boeckx (Eds.) The Biolinguistic Enterprise. New Perspectives on the Evolution and Nature of the Human Language Faculty, 42-64. UK: Oxford University Press.

Brouwer, Harm; Fitz, Hartmut & Hoeks, John (2012). Getting real about semantic illusions: rethinking the functional role of the P600 in language comprehension. Brain research 1446: 127–143.

Bubic, Andreja; Cramon, D. Yves von & Schubotz, Ricarda I. (2010). Prediction, cognition and the brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4: 1-15.

Carreiras, Manuel & Clifton, Charles (2002). The on-line Study of Sentence Comprehension. Nueva York: Psychology Press.

Carruthers, Peter. (2002). The cognitive functions of language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 657-726.

Chomsky, Noam (1986). Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use. Westport: Praeger.

Chomsky, Noam (2007). On Language. New York: The new Press.

De Long, Katherine A.; Troyer, Melissa & Kutas, Marta (2014). Pre-processing in sentence comprehension: Sensitivity to likely upcoming meaning and structure. Language and linguistics compass 8 (12): 631–645.

De Long, Katherine A.; Urbach, Thomas P. & Kutas, Marta (2005). Probabilistic word pre-activation during language comprehension inferred from electrical brain activity. Nature neuroscience 8 (8): 1117–1121.

Dennett, Daniel. (1991). Consciousness explained. Boston: Little, Brown.

Drenhaus, Heiner et al. (2014). Incremental and predictive discourse processing based on causal and concessive discourse markers: ERP studies on German and English. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 36(36): 403-408.

Duchowski, Andrew (2007). Eye Tracking Methodology. Theory and Practice. Clemson, SC: Springer.

Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M. & Summerfield, Christopher (2010). Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 (49): 16601–16608.

Evans, Jonathan & Stanovich, Keith. (2013). Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition:Advancing the Debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(3): 223-241.

Ferreira, Fernanda; Bailey, Karl; Ferraro, Vittoria (2002). Good-Enough Representations in Language Comprehension. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 11-15.

Ferreira, Fernanda. & Chantavarin, Suphasiree. (2018). Integration and Prediction in Language Processing: a Synthesis of Old and New. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1-6.

Ferreira, Fernanda & Lowder, Matthew W. (2016). Prediction, Information Structure, and Good-Enough. Psychology of Learning and Motivation 65: 217–247.

Fodor, Jerry (1983). The Modularity of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Frankish, Keith. (2015). Dennett’s Dual-Process Theory of Reasoning En C. Muñoz-Suárez and F. De Brigard (eds.) Content and Consciousness Revisited. USA: Springer.

Frazier, Lyn & Rayner, Keith (1982). Making and correcting errors during sentence comprehension: Eye movements in the analysis of structurally ambiguous sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 14(2): 178-210.

Frazier, Lyn (1979). On comprehending sentences: syntactic parsing strategies. Doctoral Dissertations. University of Connecticut.

Friston, Karl (2005). A theory of cortical responses. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 360 (1456): 815–836.

Fruchter, Joseph; Linzen, Tal; Westerlund, Masha & Marantz, Alec (2015). Lexical Preactivation in Basic Linguistic Phrases. Journal of cognitive neuroscience 27 (10):1912–1935.

Gregory, Richard (1997). Knowledge in perception and illusion. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences. 352: 1121-1128.

Grosjean, Francois (1980). Spoken word recognition processes and the gating paradigm. Perception and Psychophysics 28(4): 267-283.

Hagoort, Peter (2003). Interplay between syntax and semantics during sentence comprehension: ERP effects of combining syntactic and semantic violations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15(6): 883-899.

Hauser, Marc, D., Chomsky, Noam. & Fitch, W.Tecumseh (2002). The Faculty of Language: What Is It, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve? Science, 298, 1569-1579.

Hirschfield, Lauwrence & Gelman, Susan. (2002). Cartografía de la mente. La especificidad de dominio en la cognición y en la cultura. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Huettig, Falk (2015). Four central questions about prediction in language processing. En: Brain research 1626: 118–135.

Huettig,Falk & Mani, Nivedita (2016). Is prediction necessary to understand language? Probably not. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1): 19-31.

Humphries, Colin et al. (2006). Syntactic and Semantic Modulation of Neural Activity during Auditory Sentence Comprehension. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18(4): 665-679.

Jääskeläinen, Iiro (2012). Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience. Londres: BookOn.

Jackendoff, Ray (2009). Your theory of language evolution depends on your theory of language. En R. Larson, V. Deprez & H. Yamakido (Eds) The Evolution of Human Language. Biolinguistic Perspectives, 63-72. MA: Cambridge University Press.

Jackendoff, Ray (2010). Fundamentos del lenguaje. Mente, significado, gramática y evolución. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Kamide, Yuki; Scheepers, Christoph & Altamann, Gerry (2003). Integration of Syntactic and Semantic Information in Predictive Processing: Cross-Linguistic Evidence from German and English. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 32 (1): 37-55.

Karimi, Hossein & Ferreira, Fernanda (2016). Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing. Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006) 69 (5): 1013–1040.

Knoeferle, Pia; Crocker, Matthew W.; Scheepers, Christoph & Pickering,

Martin J. (2005). The influence of the immediate visual context on incremental thematic role-assignment: evidence from eye-movements in depicted events. Cognition 95 (1): 95–127.

Köhn, Arne (2018). Incremental Natural Language Processing: Challenges, Strategies, and Evaluation. COLING Cornell University.

Kuperberg, Gina (2007). Neural mechanisms of language comprehension: challenges to syntax. Brain Research 1146: 23-49.

Kuperberg, Gina R. & Jaeger, T. Florian (2016). What do we mean by prediction in language comprehension? Language, cognition and neuroscience 31 (1): 32–59.

Kuperberg, Gina R. (2013). The Proactive Comprehender: What Event-Related Potentials tell us about the dynamics of reading comprehension. En Miller, B., Cutting, L., & McCardle, P (Eds): Unraveling the Behavioral, Neurobiological, and Genetic Components of Reading Comprehension. Baltimore: Paul Brookes Publishing

Kutas, Marta & Federmeier, Kara D. (2011). Thirty years and counting: finding meaning in the N400 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Annual Review of Psychology 62: 621–647.

Kutas, Marta; DeLong, Katherine & Smith, Nathaniel (2011). A Look around at What Lies Ahead: Prediction and Predictability in Language Processing. En Moshe Bar (Ed.) Predictions in the Brain. Using our Past to generate a Future, 190-207. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Lupyan, Gary & Clark, Andy (2015). Words and the World. Current Directions in Psychological Science 24 (4): 279–284.

Marslen-Wilson, William (1973). Linguistics Structure and Speech Shadowing at Very Short Latencies. Nature 244: 522-523.

Marslen-Wilson, William (1975). Sentence Perception as an Interactive Parallel Process. Science 189 (4198): 226-228.

Martin, Clara D.; Branzi, Francesca M.& Bar, Moshe (2018). Prediction is Production: The missing link between language production and comprehension. Scientific reports 8 (1): 1079.

Mata, André; Ferreira, Mário Boto & Reis, Joana (2013). A process-dissociation analysis of semantic illusions. Acta psychologica 144 (2) : 433–443.

Metusalem, Ross et al. (2012). Generalized event knowledge activation during online sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language 66 (4): 545–567.

Millis, Keith & Just, Marcel (1994). The Influence of Connectives on Sentence Comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language 33: 128-147.

Morton, Jon (1969). Interaction of information in word recognition. Psychological Review 76(2): 165-178.

Nieuwland, Mante et al (2019). Dissociable effects of prediction and integration during language comprehension: Evidence from a large-scale study using brain potentials. BioRxiv. The preprint server for biology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/267815

Pezzulo, Giovanni (2008). Coordinating with the Future: The Anticipatory Nature of Representation. Minds & Machines 18 (2): 179–225.

Pezzulo, Giovanni; Hoffmann, Joachim & Falcone, Rino (2007). Anticipation and anticipatory behavior. Cognitive Process 8 (2): 67–70.

Pickering, Martin & Traxler, Matthew (2000). Parsing and Incremental Understanding during Reading. En M. Crocker, M. Pickering & Ch. Clifton (Eds). Arquitectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing, 238-258. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Pickering, Martin J. & Garrod, Simon (2007). Do people use language production to make predictions during comprehension? Trends in cognitive sciences 11 (3): 105–110.

Pylkkänen, Liina; Brenna, Jonathan & Bemis, Douglas (2011). Grounding the cognitive neuroscience of semantics in linguistic theories. Language and Cognitive Processes 26 (9): 1317-1337.

Pylkkänen, Lina & McElree, Brian (2007). An MEG Study of Silent Meaning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19(11): 1905-1921.

Shank, R. & Abelson, R. (1977). Scrpits, Plans, Goals and Understading: an Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sikos, Les; Duffield, Cecily Jill; Kim & Albert E. (2016). Grammatical predictions reveal influences of semantic attraction in online sentence comprehension: evidence from speeded forced-choice sentence continuations. Language, cognition and neuroscience 31 (8): 1055–1073.

Song, Hyunjin & Schwarz, Norbert (2008). Fluency and the misleading questions: low processing fluency attenuates the moses illusion. Social Cognition 26(6): 791-799.

Spelke, Elizabeth (2003). What makes us smart? Core knowledge and natural language. En D. Gentner & S. Goldin-Meadow (Eds.), Language in mind: Advances in the study of language and thought, 277-311. Cambridge, MA, US: MIT Press.

Spelke, Elizabeth & Kinzler, Katherine (2007). Core knowledge. Developmental Science 10(1):89-96.

Stahl, A. E., & Feigenson, L. (2019). Violations of Core Knowledge Shape Early Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 11: 136-153.

Staub, Adrian & Clifton, Charles (2006). Syntactic prediction in language comprehension: evidence from either…or. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition 32 (2): 425–436.

Summerfield, Christopher & Egner, Tobias (2009). Expectation (and attention) in visual cognition. Trends in cognitive sciences 13 (9): 403–409.

Szpunar, K. & Tulving, Endel (2011). Varieties of future experiences. En Moshe Bar (Ed). Predictions in the brain. Using our past to generate a future, 3-12. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thornton, Ian M. & Hubbard, Timothy L. (2002). Representational momentum: New findings, new directions. Visual Cognition 9 (1-2): 1–7.

Traxler, Matthew., Bybee, Michael. & Pickering, Martin. (1997). Influence of Connectives on Language Comprehension: Eye-tracking Evidence for Incremental Interpretation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50A (3): 481-497.

Traxler, Matthew J. (2014). Trends in syntactic parsing: anticipation, Bayesian estimation, and good-enough parsing. Trends in cognitive sciences 18 (11): 605–611.

Van Berkum, Jos (2004). Sentence comprehension in a wider discourse: Can we use ERPs to keep track of things? En M. Carreiras & C. Clifton Jr. (Eds.), The on-line study of sentence comprehension: Eyetracking, ERPs and beyond, 229 –270. New York: Psychology Press.

Van Berkum, Jos (2010). The brain is a prediction machine that cares about good and bad – Any implications for neuropragmatics? Italian Journal of Linguistics 22(1): 181-208.

Van Berkum, Jos et al. (2005). Anticipating Upcoming Words in Discourse: evidence from ERPs and Reading Times. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 31 (3): 443-467.

Van Petten, Cyma & Luka, Barbara J. (2012). Prediction during language comprehension benefits, costs, and ERP components. Intenational Journal of Psychology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 38(2): 176-190.

Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.; Moreno, Eva M. & Kutas, Marta (2004). Anticipating words and their gender: an event-related brain potential study of semantic integration, gender expectancy, and gender agreement in Spanish sentence reading. Journal of cognitive neuroscience 16 (7): 1272–1288.

Willems, Roel, Frank, Stephan; Nijhof, Annabel; Hagoort, Peter & van den Bosch, Antal. (en prensa). Prediction during natural language comprehension. Cerebral Cortex.

Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig & Demberg, Vera (2016). Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing. Frontiers in psychology 7: 844.

Zunino, Gabriela M. (2017). Procesamiento de causalidad y contracausalidad: Interacciones entre estructura sintáctica y conocimiento del mundo en la comprensión de relaciones semánticas. Revista Signos. Estudios de Lingüística 50(95): 472-491.

Zunino, Gabriela M. (en prensa). Procesamiento de discurso: relaciones semánticas, expectativas del lector y construcción de modelos mentales. Revista Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.


Maestría en Lingüística / Maestría y Especialización en Lingüística Aplicada.

Facultad de Lenguas. Universidad Nacional del Comahue

ISSN 2591-541X

URL: http://revele.uncoma.edu.ar/htdoc/revele/index.php/lingustica/index
Av. Mendoza y Perú - C.P.(8332) General Roca, Río Negro, Argentina - Teléfono: +54 298-4422057
Contacto: quintuquimun@gmail.com