INFLUENCIA DE FACTORES EDAFO/CLIMÁTICOS SOBRE POBLACIONES MICROBIANAS DE SUELOS ÁRIDOS CON AGRICULTURA BAJO RIEGO

Contenido principal del artículo

Lujan Masseroni
María Micaela Pérez
Paolo Daniel Sartor
Laura Marcela Rörig
Luciano José Merini

Resumen

Las fronteras agrícolas se están expandiendo constantemente, por medio de la tecnología de riego, hacia zonas áridas marginales. Considerando el impacto de la población bacteriana y su actividad biológica en la homeostasis del suelo, la generación de información sobre la biodiversidad del suelo y su actividad biológica son un importante aporte para maximizar la producción con un impacto mínimo en estos ambientes susceptibles. El objetivo de este trabajo exploratorio fue evaluar el efecto de las prácticas agrícolas a largo plazo (30 años) sobre la actividad y los aspectos estructurales de la comunidad microbiana de los suelos áridos con agricultura bajo riego. Para ello, se evaluaron tres ambientes, recolectando muestras de un suelo árido Prístino (sin riego y sin disturbar) y dos suelos agrícolas bajo riego con diferente historial de manejo (Alfalfa y Maíz) a lo largo de la temporada 2014-2015. Se realizó un análisis fisicoquímico de los suelos, se registró la temperatura y humedad, así como la actividad biológica total (hidrólisis FDA) y la huella molecular (DGGE y T-RFLP) para cada tratamiento. Los análisis fisicoquímicos del suelo muestran que las prácticas agrícolas mejoraron algunas de las propiedades edáficas como el nivel de materia orgánica, aunque el aporte de agua en cantidades limitadas (riego presurizado) provocó un aumento de la conductividad eléctrica. La actividad biológica total a lo largo de las estaciones del año mostró perfiles similares para todos los ambientes, y los meses más fríos/sin riego y más caluroso/con riego mostraron las actividades más bajas y más altas, respectivamente. En general, la condición Prístina presentó niveles de actividad biológica significativamente más bajos a lo largo de la temporada. La huella dactilar DGGE mostró un patrón discreto con bajo número de bandas y, contra lo esperado, no mostró diferencias entre los tres ambientes evaluados. El análisis por T-RFLP posterior confirmó que la biodiversidad bacteriana del suelo no fue modificada por décadas de intensa actividad agrícola.

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Cómo citar
Masseroni, L., Pérez, M. M., Sartor, P. D., Rörig, L. M., & Merini, L. J. (2021). INFLUENCIA DE FACTORES EDAFO/CLIMÁTICOS SOBRE POBLACIONES MICROBIANAS DE SUELOS ÁRIDOS CON AGRICULTURA BAJO RIEGO. Boletín Geográfico, 43(2). Recuperado a partir de http://revele.uncoma.edu.ar/index.php/geografia/article/view/3571
Sección
Tierras, geomorfología y recursos naturales

Citas

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