El ritmo del español y el del inglés. Repercusiones metodológicas sobre su medición acústica / Speech rhythm in Spanish and English. Methodological implications about its acoustic measurement

Gonzalo Eduardo Espinosa

RESUMEN


Desde un abordaje fonológico, el ritmo de habla se considera como la suma de diversas propiedades fonético-fonológicas, como la estructura silábica, el rol del acento y la reducción vocálica. El español y el inglés representan dos tipologías rítmicas marcadamente diferenciadas. Para dar cuenta de las diferencias rítmicas de las lenguas se han instrumentado diversas mediciones acústicas. En este trabajo adoptamos dos de las principales métricas rítmicas de duración: %V y VarcoV, empleadas en dos tratamientos distintos según el cómputo de las pausas en el habla (métodos A y B del programa Correlatore) y según los elementos finales antes de las pausas (inclusión y exclusión del intervalo final). Por medio de un corpus obtenido de forma experimental, comparamos las distintas mediciones para dar cuenta de los cómputos más productivos a la hora de reflejar las diferencias del ritmo del español de la Patagonia argentina y el del inglés estándar de Inglaterra y Estados Unidos. Nuestros resultados indican que la manera más óptima de diferenciar estos dos ritmos corresponde al empleo de la métrica VarcoV por medio del método B y con exclusión del intervalo final.

Palabras clave: ritmo de habla, métricas, español, inglés


ABSTRACT

From a phonological approach, speech rhythm has been conceived of as the product of different phonetic and phonological properties, such as syllabic structure, the role of stress and vowel reduction. Spanish and English represent two clearly different rhythmic typologies. Many acoustic measurements have been developed in order to account for the rhythmic differences among languages. In this study two rhythm metrics are adopted: %V and VarcoV. These metrics are computed considering two treatments for pauses (method A and B from the software Correlatore) and the treatment for intervals before pauses (with inclusion or exclusion of final intervals). By means of a corpus obtained experimentally, different measurements are compared so as to get the most productive way of distinguishing the rhythm of Spanish in Patagonia, Argentina, and the rhythm from standard British English and standard American English. The results indicate that the most effective technique for reflecting rhythmical differences is by means of VarcoV, method B and exclusion of final intervals.

Keywords: speech rhythm, metrics, Spanish, English


Palabras clave


ritmo de habla, métricas, español rioplatense, inglés, speech rhythm, metrics, Spanish, English

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