Autismo: entre a alta sistematização e a baixa empatia. Um estudo sobre a hipótese de hiper masculinização do cérebro no espectro autista

Thiago Perez Bernardes de Moraes

Resumen


Na década de 1940, Hans Asperger promulgou que o autismo era uma espécie de “exacerbada” masculinização do cérebro. Na década de 1980 embasado na psicobiologia, Baron-Cohen lança a ideia de que o autismo seria um estado de alto déficit de teoria da mente. A posteriori ele refinou os conceitos criando a ideia de hiper sistematização e mais recentemente tal arcabouço teórico deu revitalidade à teoria de Asperger, com a consolidação teórica do autismo como um estado de hiper masculinização do cérebro (extreme male brain). Nesse artigo, revisamos as evidências da neurobiologia, da genética e da psicologia evolucionista a respeito das evidências de uma possível hiper masculinização do cérebro. Para tanto em um primeiro momento apresentamos as principais singularidades neurofuncionais nos cérebros autistas e revisamos os principais genes candidatos ao autismo. Em outro momento, apresentamos a teoria de Baron-Cohen, junto com as definições sobre dimorfismo sexual e os conceitos de mentes empáticas (femininas), mentes sistemáticas (masculinas) e mentes hiper sistemáticas (“exacerbadamente” masculinas). Mesmo que algumas das evidências apontadas ainda estejam em estágio incipiente, a maior parte delas corrobora a aderência da tese de Baron-Cohen e os primeiros preceitos de Asperger.

Palabras clave


Autismo; Sistematização; Empatia; Psicologia evolucionista.

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Referencias


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